Tuesday, 31 July 2018

Municipal solid waste management options

Municipal solid waste (MSW) or garbage is thrown away from every house, every office, and every institute i.e. from every area that is dwelled. Topsy-turvy urbanization in the race of raising high rise & hi tech constructions far beyond the needs and closer to our egotistic fulsomeness, has lead this bare problem to a calamitous survival. The governments, environmentally sensible organizations, and inimitable individuals are finding technological ways to counter this global catastrophe. First step is to make people aware of reducing, reusing, & recycling waste at its very origin then to properly hauling it away, treating, and utilizing it in a manner that is auspicious for the environment and health of our planet.

A study in Malaysia shows that waste-to-energy techniques can recuperate energy from MSW [1]. MSW is being used for energy production in levelheaded countries who are putting forward a stiff scuffle to make human life better after whole world has wriggled to make it worse. In Malaysia a case study was done at a landfill to mug up the options for technological waste-to-energy stratagem. Incineration is expedient for the production of electricity & heat. Anaerobic digestion was found out to be more promised for electricity generation. A study in China showed that waste-to-energy incineration of MSW can improve ambient environment and cut out greenhouse gas emissions while producing renewable energy [2]. Pollutant discharges via MSW into land, water, & air can also be taken care of through this technology. Waste-to-energy methods can not only elicit better management of MSW but can also kindle methods of harvesting alternative energy.

Biogas yield
Biogas can be yielded from MSW using efficiently designed anaerobic digesters [3]. After adequately reducing MSW’s size and by considering key features like temperature hydrogen-ion concentration, and moisture content etc. for designing digesters, the biogas yield can be resourceful.

Bioelectricity production
A study on cattle manure shows that bioelectricity can be produced through it [4]. MSW has the potential to generate electricity that can be further utilized. Also, the greenhouse gas emissions can also be reduced when large amount of MSW will be employed for bioelectricity production [5].

MSW management in Pakistan
In Pakistan the annual MSW production is around 20 million tons and the production rate is increasing each year [6]. Unless the public is aware of environmental issues and is self-motivated to generate less waste at the source, the MSW production rate per year cannot be lessen. In the absence of proficient waste collection system the waste is being dumped on the streets and in any area that has apparently unclaimed space. Neither waste sorting at the source is encouraged nor does the public have an inner urge to do so. Serious health problems are on rise due to deteriorating environment. According to a study in Data Ganj Bukhsh Town in Lahore, Pakistan showed that reconditioning household waste material, gathering biowaste, biogasification, and energy recovery from landfill are preferable scenarios for an environmentally enhanced practice [7]. A proper MSW management plan is needed to solve the issue of solid waste floating around here and there across the country.  

A gist of MSW by,
Engr. Ayesha Alam Khurram

[1]        S. T. Tan, W. S. Ho et al., “Energy, economic and environmental (3E) analysis of waste-to-energy (WTE) strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Malaysia”, Energy conservation and management, vol. 102 (2015), p: 111-120.  

[2]        H. Cheng and Y. Hu, “Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: Current and future practices in China”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 101 (2010), p: 3816-3824.

[3]        A. H. Igoni, M. J. Ayotamuno et al., “Designs of anaerobic digesters for producing biogas from municipal solid-waste”, Applied Energy, vol. 85 (2008), p: 430-438.

[4]        Y. Lee and N. Nirmalakhandan, “Electricity production in membrane-less microbial fuel cell fed with livestock organic solid waste”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 102 (2011), p: 5831-5835.

[5]        M. A. Rajaeifar, H. Ghanavati et al., “Electricity generation and GHG emission reduction potentials through different municipal solid waste management technologies: A comparative
review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 79 (2017), p: 414-439.  

[6]      https://www.bioenergyconsult.com/solid-waste-management-in-pakistan/

[7]        S. A. Batool and M. N. Chuadhry, “The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan”, Waste Management, vol. 29 (2009), p: 63-69.