Sunday 25 August 2019

Sunday 18 August 2019

RS and GIS for mapping of coastal landforms

Paper Review Report

Background and Goal of Study
The Coast landform are undergoing various changes due to various factors like environmental change i.e. Global warning and Construction on the Coastal water. These changes need to quantified, what may be the reason, which will be helpful for the Coastal water & land Management Departments for predicting the various changes in the geography. These can only be Quantified (database creation) if some technique and software is use.
The primary aim of the present study is to map coastal landforms and assess the volumetric change of sediment load over a decade along the south-west coast of Kanyakumari using integrated remote sensing and GIS techniques. The present study therefore used different change detection techniques such as (i) topographical change analysis, (ii) cross-shore profile change analysis, (iii) DEM of Difference (DoD) algorithm based Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD) analysis for estimating the volumetric changes (land loss or land gain) along the coastal stretch using the ArcGIS platform.

Mapping of coastal landforms:
The GIS and integrated Remote Sensing has been used for creating the coastal geomorphological landforms at high resolution.  The various spatial source used as input i.e. topographical map (scale 1:25,000), Landsat ETM+ image & IKONOS multi-spectral images. Then ASTER and SRTM DEM datasets are used in Arc GIS to make Map. The Garmin ETREX 30 GPS are use for ground truth verification, pre and post field verification.

DEM of Differencing of volumetric change analysis:
The GIS-based Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD) analysis provides volumetric change of sediment load in the landforms using DEM datasets acquired over periods of interval. The GCD method use the Difference of Digital Evaluation Model (DEM) of two different time using algorithm to estimate the quantitative changes of landforms of the earth surface, in a diverse set of environments, and at a range of spatial scales and temporal frequencies. In this research Geomorphic Change Detection of coastal landforms is estimated from SRTM and ASTER DEM datasets acquired for the years 2000 and 2011 respectively using DEM of Difference (DoD) method. The DoD is a mathematical algorithm for quantifying the volumetric change of the landforms using DEM datasets acquired on two different periods. 
The DoD algorithm computes the differences by subtracting pixel values of two DEMs using the equation δE = Z2 -Z1, where δE is a output DEM showing changes in volumetric scale (m3 ); Z1 is a DEM of earlier period (i.e. SRTM DEM acquired on February 2000, and Z2 is a DEM of later period (i.e. ASTER DEM acquired on October 2011). Thus, the output DEM provides volumetric change of sediment load (δE) on various landforms due to erosion and deposition with time. In which, the negative and positive values represent the land lost (erosion) and land gain (deposition)

Finally, the output map is converted into vector layer for preparation of geo-database of landform features with attributes including name, areal extent, and volumetric change rate using ESRI-ArcGIS 10.2 software.

This research paper Demonstrated the use of GIS and integrated remote Sensing for Mapping of coastal landforms and Volumetric change analysis.
The DoD analysis of geomorphic change assessment reveals changes in morphologies due to erosion or deposition processes. The spatial variation of sediment load suggests morphologies of the landforms are closely related to the marine and terrestrial processes. 

Mapping of coastal landforms and volumetric change analysis in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. S. Kaliraj et al. / The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 20 (2017) 265–282.

Review by,
Kamran ullah Khan 

GIS and RS for soil loss estimation using

Research paper review

Background and Goal of paper
Thus, an attempt was made to estimate and map the spatial pattern of annual soil loss rate by water using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) simulated by GIS and Remote sensing techniques. Therefore, this research has given answers to four core research questions; how much of soil is lost per unit area of land annually in Koga watershed? How is the spatial distribution of soil loss rate in Koga watershed? Does the estimated soil loss rate exceed the tolerable limit of soil erosion set by FAO? And where are erosion hotspot areas located for conservation prioritization?
Methodology  and Results
To calculate the Soil loss in this koga watershed (KW) a Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is used , empirically expressed as
            A (metric tons ha-1 year-1) = L*S*R*K*C*P

where A is the mean annual soil loss (metric tons ha1 year1 ); R is the rain fall erosivity factor [MJ mm h-1 ha-1 year-1]; K is the soil erodibility factor [metric tons ha-1 MJ-1mm-1]; LS is the slope length–steepness factor (dimensionless); C is the cover and management factor (dimensionless, ranges from zero to one); and P is the erosion support practice or land management factor (dimensionless, and ranges from zero to one).
Raster map of each RUSLE parameters derived from different data source were produced and finally the Soil Loss Map was generated 

Soil loss estimation using GIS and Remote sensing techniques: A case of Koga watershed, Northwestern Ethiopia. H.S. Gelagay, A.S. Minale / International Soil and Water Conservation Research 4 (2016) 126–136.

Review by,
Kamran ullah Khan 

Friday 16 August 2019

Geometrical Characterization of Landfill Site

Paper reviewk


disposal of municipal waste is always of great concern due to its environmental impacts and heath threatening effects. Due to rapid urbanization it is now a common practice that people are dumping  municipal waste into quarries or oceans with out any proper treatment . Using an old quarries into a well designed landfill is considered a good management of a solid waste. Land fill siting is major task for the planners because factor like geology , topography ,subsurface  groundwater and surface water are associated with it. There still exist a places which were used for dumping of waste In past but due to rapid urbanization and passage of time they are now  brought in to use for different purposes. Detection and characterization of buried land fill  Via different approaches is  the aim of this paper.
The research paper is  focusing  on the detection and geometrical characterization of a hidden landfill site located along the coastline of the Campi Flegrei, near Naples, Italy.                                                                                                                                 In order to examine different Topographic changes topographic historical maps at different scales from 1887 to 2004 and white aerial photographs from 1843 to 1998 are acquired from the Italian military geographic institute (IGM).
two couples of historical aerial stereo pairs acquired by the IGM, dated 1956 and 1974, along with topographic data  derived from an airborne lidar survey (ALS)
These data set was used to produce multi-temporal digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area, with the aim of comparing the obtained DEMs by a GIS-based change detection analysis.

Comparative analyses of the topographic maps  clearly showed that in 1943 There is little dumping in the quarry it increases in 1956 and 1974 and in 1998 it is completely filled with waste and reclaimed for construction as shown in fig below, this shows the variation of urban development and anthropic activity with respect to time.

Detection and Geometrical Characterization of a Buried Landfill Site by Integrating Land Use
Historical Analysis, Digital Photogrammetry and Airborne Lidar Data. Giuseppe Esposito , Fabio Matano * and Marco Sacchi. Geosciences 2018, 8, 348.

Paper review by,
Abdullah Kakar

GIS Modeling for Groundwater Vulnerability

Paper review

As the world is developing day by day, along with it, it also gives birth to many of the environmental problems like contamination of the groundwater which is mostly because of increase in industrialization, urbanization, and the leachate from the waste. The research was undertaken to know the possibility of groundwater being contaminated in the areas of the solid waste disposal site, Njelianparamba, a municipal dumping site in Kozhikode, Kerala, India. Using ESRI GIS Software the map of the area was created showing the possibilities of the contamination. The area was divided into three classes moderate vulnerable, high vulnerable, and very high vulnerable. It was concluded that eastern and south-eastern areas to be affected more.

Njelianparamba the dumping site is located in the area of Cheruvannur Nallalam of the district Kozhikode, Kerala, India. Daily 200 tons of the waste is dumped on the site. Monsoons are responsible for 82.77% of the total rainfall in the area. Groundwater level before monsoons rains are observed 2-16 meters and after rainfall is 0.38-9 meters because of such low level of the water table the leachate gets mixed with the groundwater.

DRASTIC Model was developed considering the seven factors Depth of the water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer. For the calculation of the DRASTIC Index (DI), each factor is assigned ratings and weights, rates and weights of the same factor are multiplied and then linear addition is performed. The data obtained using DRASTIC Model is combined in GIS to develop the map of the area showing possibilities to contamination of each region.

For sampling and analysis of groundwater 29 sampling sites were chosen randomly. 20 groundwater samples were taken within a buffer zone of 1 km around the dumping site, and 9 samples were taken outside the zone to check the accuracy of the map. Samples were analyzed for total dissolved solid and E-coli. For sampling and analysis of the soil 57 soil samples were taken. 49 from the buffer zone, and 8 outside the zone. Soil samples were analyzed to check soil media map.

After we had both the studies Vulnerability Map, and Sampling and Analysis reports. The both are then compared and the outcomes are: the leachate percolation is maximum at 1 km distance from the dumping site. High total dissolved solids concentrations were seen in the buffer zone, and outside of it, there were low except eastern and south-eastern sides which also are very high vulnerable in the map. The E-Coli bacteria were found to be present in most of the samples in the vicinity to the dumping site particularly within the buffer zone of 1 km. Samples outside the zone were seen to have no E-Coli except eastern and south-eastern side samples which also are very high vulnerable according to the map.

It can be concluded that the eastern and south-eastern sides of the Njelianparamba are most vulnerable to the contamination from the results of both Vulnerability map and Reports obtained from Sampling and analysis.

Application of GIS and DRASTIC Modeling for Evaluation of Groundwater Vulnerability near a Solid Waste Disposal Site. Chonattu Jaseela, Kavya Prabhakar, Puthenveedu Sadasivan Pillai HarikumarInternational Journal of Geosciences, 2016, 7, 558-571

Paper review by,
Sohail Ahmed

GIS and RS for wetland mapping

Paper review
The aim of this paper is to map vernal pools in the Northeastern United States using high-resolution LiDAR data and aerial imagery.

Background of the study
In this study the importance of wetlands has been emphasized. Wetland are the natural water resources inundated or perennial. Although a distinct definition of wetland is not available but defined by various authors have some common features such as aquatic habitats, including marshes, swamps, bogs, fens, peatlands, prairie potholes, vernal pools, and aquatic beds, among others. In general, wetlands are transitional habitats situated between wet (e.g., lakes, rivers, streams, estuaries) and dry environments. Thus, the demarcation of a wetland lies along a continuum of water gradient and is somewhat arbitrary. Some wetland definitions include open-water habitats (e.g., lakes, rivers, streams) as wetlands, while others exclude permanent deep water and focus more on shallow water habitats. Wetlands exist in numerous sorts of atmospheres, on each landmass except Antarctica. They vary in size from disconnected prairie potholes to immense salt bogs. They are found along coasts and inland. A few wetlands are forests. Others are like watery fields.

Benefits of wetlands
Wetlands provide abundant ecological and socioeconomic benefits, such as providing habitats for fish, wildlife, and plant, storing floodwater and reducing peak runoff, recharging groundwater, filtering impurities in water, acting as nutrient and sediment sinks, protecting shorelines from erosion, and providing a range of recreational opportunities (e.g., boating, fishing, hunting).

In this case study, 1-m resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR)derived digital elevation modelling (DEM) in conjunction with LiDAR intensity imagery was used to map prairie wetlands and surface hydrologic flow pathways. The LiDAR intensity imagery was used to delineate wetland inundation areas, where as the LiDAR DEM was used to delineate wetland depressions, catchments, and surface hydrologic flow pathways.
Arc GIS is used to streamline the procedures for automated delineation of wetland catchments and flow paths, the proposed framework the toolbox consists of three tools: Wetland Depression Tool, Wetland Catchment Tool, and Flow Path Tool.
The Wetland Catchment Tool uses the digital elevation modelling (DEM) grid and the wetland polygon layers resulted from the Wetland Depression Tool as input, and exports wetland catchment layers in both vector and raster format. Various morphometric properties (e.g., width, length, area, perimeter, maximum depth, mean depth, volume, elongations, and compactness) are computed and included in the attribute table of the wetland vector layers.
The wetlands were identified for prairie pothole region (PPR) in north America
The chart given below is proposed framework for outlining wetland catchments and flow paths.

The results obtained by comparing a small portion of the prairie pothole region of Dakota to the inundation polygons derived from the 2011 LiDAR intensity data and the NWI polygons created in the early 1980s by the U.S. It was observed that the national wetlands inventory (NWI) in this region is significantly out of date. The acquired light detecting and ranging data in October 2011 relatively shows large disjointed NWI wetlands coalesced and formed even larger wetland complexes during the extremely wet period.

According to the author except north America and parts of Europe, comprehensive national-scale wetland inventories are not available foremost countries. The author argues that technologies like GIS and remote sensing has greatly improved the geo-mapping of wetlands.

GIS and remote sensing applications in Wetland mapping and monitoring. Qiusheng Wu.

Review by,

Ehsan Nazeer

GIS technique for delineation of groundwater potential zones

Paper review
The objective of this study is to figure out the groundwater potential zones and develop a prospective guide map for groundwater exploration/ exploitation to ensure optimum and sustainable development and management of this vital resource.

Dili city is the capital of Timor Leste. The water necessities of the city are mainly dependent upon underground water resources. Groundwater accounts for more than 60 % of the total annual water supply for agriculture, domestic, and industrial purposes. The city is urbanizing rapidly so water demand is increasing. To fulfill the demand of the city it is necessary to explore more reserves and use them effectively and to the optimal level. Timore Leste as developing country is seeking various ways to increase the freshwater availability and ensure the continuous supply of water to the individual and the community.

Study area
This study was conducted in the Comoro watershed, which consists of the Dili City as the capital of Timor Leste.

The existing hydrogeological and relevant data on soils, geological/lithological units, structural features, geomorphologic, and climatic conditions of the study area were collected from relevant department. The rainfall data was collected from meteorological and agriculture department.

ArcGIS 10.1 software was used to integrate the eight thematic layers of conventional geology, soil, drainage and lineament maps, rainfall data as well as remotely sensed data of land use, slope and topography.

Development of thematic layers
using ArcMap 10.1 software the drainage density map, topography map, and slope map of the study area were generated from ASTER DEM data.
PCI Geomatica was used to extract the lineament of the study area (lineaments are structurally controlled linear or curvilinear features, which are extracted from the satellite imagery by their relative linear alignments. These articulate the surface topography of the underlying structural features. Lineaments characterize the fault and fracture zones—resulting in increased secondary porosity and permeability).
 The slope map of the study area was generated in unit (degree) from ASTER DEM data with cell size of 30 m resolution and pixel depth of 16 bit using spatial analysis tool in ArcMap 10.1. slope is of high importance areas with steeper slope were given low importance because they have high rate of run off, while the areas with low slope and flatter area were given high importance.

Results showed that the most potential zones lie in northwest part of Comoro watershed which covers about 5.4 % (13.5 km2) area of the watershed. It is observed that high potential zones are in the northwestern part of the Comoro watershed and the western part of the Dili alluvial plain.


From the study it is concluded that the use of geospatial technology, remote sensing, and the AHP technique is demonstrated as the best tools for the identification of groundwater potential zone. The technology will also help the authorities about the suitable area for prospective exploration of groundwater wells and protect the area from contamination.

Delineation of groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed, Timore Leste using GIS, remote sensing and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique. Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:503–519.

Review by,
Ehsan Nazeer

GIS Tools for the Optimization of Solid Waste Transport

Paper review

The objective of this study is to suggest the most effective routes for collection and transportation of solid wastes of district Cite El Habib.

This case study was carried out in district Cite EL Habib in the city Sfax. This city is the second largest city of Tunisia. People in this city through their wastes in plastic bags in near containers and then it is collected by municipality. This study is carried out to perform a route optimization for the collection and transportation of solid wastes collected from different collection points. In this city the collection and transportation expenses account up to 75% of the total budget of solid waste management. Waste collection is carried out manually and mechanically.

Arc GIS network analyst tool was used in the study. Global positioning systems (GPS) was used for tracking the routes of collection. Details of road maps, population density, municipality land use were obtained from google earth. Once all this data was obtained it was processed in to layers such as vector and rasters after that route optimization model was performed in Arc GIS network analysis.

They suggested three scenarios S1, S2,S3 and compared them with existing scenario S0 they perceived that all the suggested routes are more effective than the existing one with respect to fuel consumption, time, work hour, and manpower.

Using GIS-Based Tools for the Optimization of Solid Waste Collection and Transport: Case Study of Sfax City, Tunisia. Amjad Kallel,1,2 Mohamed Moncef Serbaji,1 and Moncef Zairi1,2. Journal of Engineering Volume 2016, Article ID 4596849, 7 pages.

Review by,
Ehsan Nazeer

RS and GIS-based Wetland Analysis

Paper Review Report

Background and Goal of paper
Wetlands are areas of land where water covers the soil – all year or just at certain times of the year. Wetlands provide an important range of environmental, social and economic services. Many wetlands are areas of great natural beauty and many are important to Aboriginal people.
The objective of this study is to detect the total wetland changes from 1993 to 2002 in the Canaan Valley area by using Supervised Maximum Likelihood Classification and Post classification change detection methods. Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing technologies are used to process the data
Study area
The study area, Canaan Valley wetland area of Tucker County (West Virginia), It is ranked the largest wetland area in West Virginia, representing about 9% of State’s wetlands.
Data Collection
In order to compare the wetland area differences, the Landsat 5 TM images in 1992, 1993, 1999, 2002 and 2005 with 30 meters’ resolution (Table 3.1) were downloaded from the Earth Science Data Interface (ESDI) website produced by Global Land Cover Facility (GLFC) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).
The scene with Worldwide Reference System 2, Path-17/Row-33 was used to acquire the Landsat images which fully cover the Canaan Valley area. In addition to these data sets, rainfall data was collected to assist in selection of the images.
The image processing task was carried out using Earth Resource Data Analysis System (ERDAS) 2010. Then ArcGIS


Significant change has been detected in the Canaan Valley area with high accuracies. There was a serious wetland loss from 56.17% in 1993 to 28.57% in 2002 in Canaan Valley area due to the dramatically decrease in forested/ shrub wetland. The remaining total wetland area was estimated only 8814.606 acres by 2002, which was about half of wetland in 1993.

A Remote Sensing and GIS-based Wetland Analysis In Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Yisha Shi. Thesis.

Review by,
Kamran ullah Khan 

GIS Based Analysis of MSW Collection System

Research paper review

Background and Goal of Study
The municipal Solid waste management is necessary for developing country and it required research study to do Decision making in managing the Waste of City and Make Collection points away from the Water source. The wastes produce in the Wa,Ghana are
Wa produces approximately 20,000 tons of MSW annually, based on 0.45 kg/capita generation rate.
• This amount of MSW is composed of metals, paper and cardboard, organics (including food and wood wastes), plastics, textiles, inert substances (sand and ashes), and waste electric and electronic equipment.
• About 13,400 tons (68%) of MSW is collected annually in the town and over 80% of that collected using the communal container collection system (see Figure 2) while the remaining is collected through house-to house system.
This research has been done to make a Data base map of the WA, Ghana to indicate the pollution Risk point on the Wa,Ghana map from which following data will be extracted
1.      The Water borehole Distance from the Municipal waste collection site ( MWSC)
2.      Municipal Solid Waste Collection Efficiency and Ground Dumping.

Data Collection
The data collection for this study was carried out in Wa from June to August 2013 for both MSWCS and drinking water collection sources (i.e. boreholes and hand-dug wells) using a GPS receiver, GPSMAP 62sc, a product of Garmin. The data were then transferred to ArcMap 10.1 (ArcGIS 10.1) software with the aid of DNRGPS software.
Relevant attributes were recorded for the MSWCS and drinking water collection sources using data collection sheets. Areas with open, indiscriminate dumps were noted during field visits.
The water source critical distance from the MSMCS site was set for classifying the Risk of Pollution then the Map is generated in the Arc GIS.

Results and Discussions
1.      Municipal Solid Waste Collection Efficiency and Ground Dumping
The results of this analysis are shown in Figure 5. Out of the 51 MSWCS mapped, 17 (about 34%) had containers and no ground dumping of waste, 20 (39% approximately) had containers with ground dumping of waste, and 14 (nearly 27%) are without containers with ground dumping. Overall, about 67% of MSWCS are experiencing ground dumping, which suggests poor MSWM.

2.      Boreholes Potentially Violating the Groundwater Protection Requirements of Government Law ( Borehole safe distance from MSWCS i.e 30m)
This finding suggests that all the hand pump boreholes mapped in this study met the minimum 30 meter requirement for siting boreholes with respect to the MSWCS while for mechanized boreholes with minimum distance of 100 meters, 15 outputs (24% of mechanized or 15% of total boreholes) were generated which is located with 100 meters.

Abdulai, H., Hussein, R., Bevilacqua, E. and Storrings, M. (2015) GIS Based Mapping and Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Collection System in Wa, Ghana. Journal of Geographic Information System, 7, 85-94.

Review by,
Kamran ullah Khan 

Mapping of plumes at MSW disposal sites

Research paper review

Background and Goal of Study
Municipal solid waste disposal sites can be sources of groundwater contamination and the contamination problems are more likely to occur in humid areas, where the moisture available exceeds the ability of the waste pile absorb water.
This paper covers the Geo-electrical imaging of Subsurface to get know about the subsurface pollution quantitively and This paper discusses the results of the 2-D resistivity imaging which were conducted to identify and outline the extent of contaminated soil and leachate plumes, as well as to assess the capability of the 2-D resistivity imaging as a pre-characterization tool for tracing the properties of disposed waste and its severity underneath a capped landfill sites.
The surveys were conducted using ABEM SAS1000 resistivity meter and LUND Automatic imaging system and the measured resistivity profiles were interpreted using 2-D resistivity inversion program (RES2DINV)
Leachate Definition: liquid that is generated from water percolating through a solid waste disposal site, accumulating contaminants, and moving into subsurface areas. A second source of leachate arises from the high moisture content of certain disposed wastes. As these wastes are compacted or chemically react, bound water is released as “leachate.”

The resistivity data acquisition used a two-dimensional resistivity imaging technique. Both the SAS1000 resistivity meter and ABEM LUND automatic electrode selector system was used in these studies. The meters were connected to a total of 61 steel electrodes, which were laid out on a straight line with a constant spacing via a multicore cable. The Wenner equal spacing electrode array was used for this survey. The Lund system automatically selects the four active electrodes used for each measurement.
Resulting 2D Geo-Electrical Image interpretation
Underground soil or water that has been contaminated by leachate usually has a significantly lower resistivity value, which is indicated by the colours in the above Fig.
The higher resistivity Value indicate that the soil is pure or Have Non degradable waste
 Resistivity of some common rocks and soil materials (Material Resistivity (ohm-m))
 Alluvium 10 – 100 (ohm-m), Sand 60 – 1000 (ohm-m), Clay 1 – 100 (ohm-m), Groundwater (fresh) 10 – 1000 (ohm-m), Granite 5000 – 1,000,000 (ohm-m).

Results Discussion of three sites which 2 D image has been generated
The Geo-electrical imaging method was used to map the contaminated subsurface soil and ground water at three selected municipal solid waste disposal sites in Malaysia. The sites include Ampar Tenang open-tipping site, Bukit Kemuning (BK) capped landfill, and Taiping landfill (TL), all located in Malaysia where a total of twenty-two 2-D resistivity lines were surveyed. The migration of leachate plume at Ampar Tenang site was traced in form of low resistivity zones (with resistivity less than 2.0 ohm-m) of decomposing waste bodies saturated with highly conductive leachate. At the Bukit Kemuning landfill site, two plumes of a reasonably high conductive leachate have been traced. The resistivity images indicate that the subsurface soil and groundwater within Taiping Landfill area has been contaminated by leachate, which appears to have migrated outside the landfill site.

The 2-D direct current resistivity imaging technique has been successfully used in this study to map the contamination plume and to characterize the landfill sites in terms of subsurface resistivity distribution of the waste material and soil underneath the vicinity of each landfill site. The interpreted resistivity section which correlates well with the actual profile of the excavated part of the site (Bukit Kemuning), suggests the potentiality of 2D resistivity imaging technique as pre-characterization tool for mapping subsurface contamination in the vicinity of waste disposal sites.

However, the complexity of subsurface conditions beneath contaminated lands requires a multidisciplinary approach combining the systematic and careful application of hydrogeological, chemical and environmental geophysical techniques.


Mapping of contamination plumes at municipal solid waste disposal sites using geoelectric imaging technique: Case studies in Malaysia. Samsudin et al. / JOSH (2006) 13-22.

Review by,
Kamran ullah Khan 

GIS for MSW siting

Research paper review
Background and Goal of paper
Increased Urbanization rate is the major problem of the cities which cause major problems in the city like unforeseen traffic rush, water demand and municipal waste management problem.
In this paper the municipal solid waste land fill site locations are determined, which are the most optimum one i.e. Most favorable site for Municipal solid landfill. As large land is easily available for land fill but it will be not be optimum ,So the research of author is all about locating the optimum site using the Geographic Information system.
1.      Acquiring of base map for study and using it for making thematic maps through Arch GIS software

Base maps (primary data source)
The primary data sources for the study included the topo sheets of Pondicherry which were used to prepare the base map for the study. Water bodies, road network and elevation maps were prepared based on the Survey of India map by digitization.
 Geology, soil, fault line, water supply sources, and groundwater maps were collected from departments and subsequently digitized.
The land use map was generated through the image interpretation and classification of the Indian Remote Sensing satellite IRS1D imagery of Pondicherry of 22.8 m resolution.
 Thematic Maps
Digital thematic maps were generated by employing the following procedures:
·         Scanning of the available primary paper maps.
·         Geo referencing the scanned maps to earth coordinates.
·         On screen digitizing of the primary maps, thereby generating the digital thematic maps, each characterizing the influencing factor for landfill site selection.
·         Locating the GPS coordinates and entering in the database as latitude and longitude.
·         Conversion of the latitude and longitude data into the point data using the software.
·         Addition of the attribute data to the locations.

The various Thematic maps made are
1.Water bodies map
2.Road network map
3.Land use map
4.Sensitive sites map
5.Groundwater quality map
6.Geology map
7.Groundwater table map
8.Air quality index map
9.Waste land map
10.Infiltration map
11.Elevation map
12.Buffer maps

2.      The Analytical tools use for analyzing of thematic Maps
 The list of factors considered for selecting the disposal sites are as indicated and then to each factors  Rating and weightage is assigned through .
1.Lake and ponds
2.Air quality index
3.Water supply sources
3.Groundwater table
4.Groundwater quality
8.Fault Line
10.Land use
13.Sensitive sites

Then Composite Suitability Index CSU = ∑ ((Wc. Rc) TM is used for analyzing the thematic bas Map ,listed in Table 1 , on the rating and weightage assigned to each of the criteria ( mentioned in above table)
Results and conclusion
The thematic maps were generated, overlaid upon one another and the above proposed algorithm was run on them and GIS based analysis performed. The GIS-based constraint mapping technique was employed for the entire study area and subsequently 17 potential sites were identified for landfill development on the basis of the selected criteria.
Thereafter, the immediate local conditions prevailing at the present moment were assessed and the 17 potential sites were further screened to 3 sites that were the most optimum ones.
The sites were ranked on the basis of area availability


GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill. V.R. Sumathi et al. / Waste Management 28 (2008) 2146–2160.

Review by,
Kamran ullah Khan