Saturday 24 December 2016

Vegetation mapping using LiDAR


LIght Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) technology is capable of making spatially located point elevation measurements to generate precise and high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of a chosen canopy or particular structure. Vegetation and trees mapping can be expertly done using LiDAR technology. LiDAR’s fast, dense, and systematic dataset permits mapping of land-use classification, vegetation canopy, ground elevations in dense vegetation covers, areas of minute textural differences, areas of minute elevation differences, and point and line features i.e. trees, water lines etc.         

Why vegetation mapping is important?
Natural resources when managed for a positive reason of saving the ecosystem in an optimistic way, can offer benefits for longer time period without getting deteriorated. Natural resources management is not comprehensive unless vegetation is properly identified with its characteristics, uses and impacts on the environment. Such vegetation mapping is sure to be efficiently done using LiDAR for determining species and groups of vegetation, measuring vegetation in three dimensions, and mapping vegetation spectrally, spatially, and temporally. If and when vegetation mapping is done in a resourceful and well-organized manner, it can solve widespread concerns during forest inventories, ecological studies, environmental modeling, hazards control, risk mapping, and wildlife safety. LiDAR data can be used to identify distinct structures in any canopy such as trees in parks, fruit orchards or forests. Distinct 3D models of trees can be created using LiDAR data. LiDAR can also acquire data on leaves’ characteristics, diversity of microhabitat, and transpiration.

Factors that effect LiDAR data
The accuracy of LiDAR data depends upon the factors like alignment of the coordinate system, quality of point data, point density, vegetation height thresholds, vegetation density in the canopy, wind that affects the leaves, leaf-on and leaf-off seasons, forest cover effects, complex vegetation cover, size of individual trees, undergrowth of herbs, shrubs’ areas, wood quality, birds in the vicinity, slope and elevation of the terrain, terrains with high and low reliefs, data recruitment times and dates, aircraft fluctuations, the distance between LiDAR sensor and trees, pulse mode, site conditions, weather, interpolation of points, stitching accuracy, and the LiDAR sensor itself. The task of creating a well-defined 3D model of tree is accomplished when the modeling of leaves, twigs, branches, tree height, tree crown, and crown diameter are incorporated into it.    

When LiDAR data is achieved, generation of DEM can be done flawlessly after filtering of errors and outliers removal from LiDAR points, interpolating and reorganization of the points, and separation of ground points i.e. ground filtering. DEM which is representation of the landscape along with its vegetation quantitatively can be used to assess the terrain, vegetation, and trees conditions and their effects on the surroundings. DEM provides a broad vision and is used to get the spatial information about processes occurring within the forest canopy. After evaluation of DEM, the decision can be made for the management and control of vegetation areas for the betterment of neighboring flora and fauna, wildlife, water bodies, human settlement, and the vegetation itself.

LiDAR technology acquires accurate and workable 3D data swiftly and competently. The use of LiDAR technology in forest environments can speedily attain precise spatial data of trees and vegetation temporally. When LiDAR data is presented in form of DEM, it enables researchers to visualize the canopies’ physical, chemical, and biological scenarios through an unprecedented visualization for the quantitative analysis of the forest’s canopy.     


Analysis of the factors affecting LiDAR DTM accuracy in a steep shrub area

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Friday 16 December 2016

How to naturally boost metabolism to burn belly fat?

Belly fat or any stubborn fat doesn’t get mobilize unless the body’s metabolism improves. 
What is metabolism?
Sum total of the body’s chemical reactions in order to live.

Here are few ‘technical’ tips to improve metabolism & to get rid of belly fat or stubborn fat:

Continuous 8 hours of sleep at night is considered a waste of time in our culture. Because we are too busy with our touch-pads or eatings or parties. Right? Remember that a good metabolism is directly related to sleep and relaxation. Sleeping relaxes mind and body as sleeping drains the bad mood out of the brain and tiredness out of the body hence reducing emotional stress levels and enhancing metabolism. When we are up at late hours – we are sure to munch and that munching is generally sweet or fatty disturbing the metabolism rate. Secondly, the brain cannot cleanse itself to regularize the metabolism and other body functions. Lastly, we don’t exactly do anything productive at late hours. Do we?

Gulp & munch…
Lots of water, lots of water, & lots of water. Detox water, mint-ginger water, honey-lemon water, green tea, non-fat soups, and other fluids like non-sugary fresh juices should be part of diet. Healthy fats in small amounts like butter & oils, proteins (meat & eggs), and fiber that is found in dates, nuts, seeds & vegetables should be added into diet. Other foods that are good for improving metabolism and that help in shedding belly fat are peppers, spinach, berries, apples, pears, oat meal, and citrus fruits with vitamin C like grapefruit fruits & oranges. Milk & yogurt should also be inclusive in weekly diet. 

Yes, strenuous exercises are important to tackle belly fat. Targeted sprint exercises like high intensity interval on the spot jogging, skipping, scissor kicks, mountain climber, burpee and curl-ups. Sprint exercises improve metabolism while letting you age slower. Using weights, I know it feels like you want not be the next weight lifting champion, but working out using light weights won’t make your body vividly muscular and will help in refining muscle and reducing fat. This will result in shedding that fat. 

Limit your technology usage. Use it when needed and don’t touch it when you crave just to touch it. You will feel enrichment in your behavior, pain-less self, sleep, mind’s activeness, and metabolism rate.

Spiritual journey…
The soul, the mind, and the body make a person. If you think you can continue soul corrupting and mind rusting stuff and take care of your body meanwhile, the results can be dementing. Learn how to enrich your mind and nourish your soul, then workout for your body, it will work.

Unless we think it, we can’t do it. Once we start realizing that our bad habits are ruining our metabolism and body’s functions, only then we can think to alter our habits, finally we can act upon that very thinking. We must change our mind-set to stay healthy. When the goal of staying healthy enroots in our minds, we automatically regularize our bad habits resulting in a fresher us. When the mind is set technically, we can get the time to sleep better, eat healthy, exercise regularly and enlightened with spiritual journey.      

Remember: It is good to consult your health care provider before you initiate any diet plan or exercise routine.
All the above tips are not to be considered as a medical advice.

Metabolism explained by,

Monday 5 December 2016

How environmental engineering can be relished with GIS?


Geographic Information System (GIS) is one of the geospatial technologies that are enthralling the globe with their scientific stewardship and shrewdness. GIS is a deluxe technology that succors geo-mapping, environmental modeling, temporal update of the globe, achieving geographic scenarios insights, spatial data exploration, environmental data formulation, and cost analysis of the projects. GIS is suitable for every field that comes under the domain of environmental engineering. GIS gathers and saves the required environmental information which can be used to reveal selected angle of a particular situation to solve a given problem. Applications of GIS are discussed according to the location of environmental issues i.e. environmental issues that are related to air, water, and land.          

The filthiness of the atmosphere can be sensed by every being living on the planet’s face. Whether it is the urbanization, the industrialization, the cottage industry advancement, or the traffic increment, it is adding more and more to the air pollution. All of it is upsetting wildlife, human life, and well being and aesthetics of the environment. GIS can be used to map the air pollution, to model the spatial configuration of the pollution, and to assess extent of the air pollution temporally. 

The same factors that impact unfavorably health of the air are also offensive to the fresh water ways and water bodies. GIS can be nimbly used to inspect landscape characteristics data to evaluate water quality, collect data for assisting remediation of pollution, manage water treatment procedures, oversee natural and anthropogenic processes that disturb water catchments, make a practicable land use management plan, store spatial and temporal data of water resources, and map environmental phenomenon with in water bodies.  
Wastewater treatment can be efficiently done using GIS when it is used to calculate treatment costs, decide amongst the treatment alternatives, model wastewater transport data, improve the pumping of wastewater, and map successive treatment processes. 

One of the utmost sources of environmental degradation on land is solid waste. Be it municipal, industrial or hazardous, it is totally messy. It pollutes the land, the water ways, and the atmosphere. GIS can be used to plan and map solid waste collection, segregation, transportation, and dumping system. GIS can also be used to estimate distances to landfill, map landfill location and land slope, plan optimal routes from source to disposal, and recommend a suitable disposal site.          

If and when the field of environmental engineering is equipped with GIS, it can sense the aptitude of GIS while making life refining environmental decisions. GIS is unequivocally an expedient and technical tool for environmental studies, applications, and research. Not only students and institutes can get benefit of this technology but also environmental decision makers, managers, developers, and even lay person can be benefited from it. GIS is expected to demonstrate more of its abilities in future there by saving money, labor, and time of its users. GIS when incorporated into environmental engineering research and projects can illustrate its technical benefits. Environmental engineering can then be understood, solved, and displayed in an enhanced style.  

Aspinall R, Pearson D. J Environ Manage. 2000; 59: 299–319p.

Crooks AT, Castle CJE. In Heppenstall AJ, Crooks AT, See LM, et al. (Eds). Agent–Based Models of Geographical Systems. Netherlands: Springer; 2012; 219–51p.

Goodchild MF, et al. Environmental Modeling with GIS. New York: Oxford University Press; 1993.

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Sunday 6 November 2016

6 perks of starting your business before you graduate

Once the entrepreneurial notion triggers with in the heart of a future entrepreneur and the idea comes out of the mist, he/she starts planning on how to make it happen. The idea must be followed by a thoughtful plan. The plan then comes into the execution phase and finally the start-up builds its shape & reputation. A person at any stage of life can feel the pulse to work towards a successful star-up.

The best stage of life to go for your entrepreneurial dreams is while you are an undergraduate student. It is the time of life when you are most “free”. Now don’t get me wrong as I use the word “free”. I know there are assignments, exams, presentations, FYPs, and events that keep you busy day in & day out. Any ways, that’s another topic but for now take a look at these charming benefits an undergraduate student can avail when he/she works towards a start-up while studying. 

You can find your technical niche easily
You don’t have to find your interest. You just need to develop your interest in at least one or few technical subject that you feel comfortably getting along with. If you start a glass / wood selling business then what an intermediate pass will do? If you are thinking about any business that is purely non-technical then what’s the use of all this maghaz maree (brain-storming), presence, & attendance at the university? Use your wisdom tooth up to its potential. Get as many professional experiences as you can. Work in highly technical environments. It’s the best time when you can go through trails & errors of your technical ideas. Post graduating, errors might be catastrophic.

Do not “find” your endeavors out there. The endeavors are hidden in the very core of yourself. You just need to clip them & gloss them, then get them endorsed, and finally dispense them for the better.

Making a good team of energetic executives
You are a student, there are 1000’s of students surrounding you. You know most of them. You know their personality & interests. You know if they can catch up with you in difficult times or not. It’s the best scenario when you can actually build up a team of like-minded students who possess similar endeavors. Later on, out there in the world it’s near impossible to hand-pick such perfect team. Right now you have the chance to pick & reject, change the team, or change the leadership of your team.  

Embellish your resume
It’s the phase of life when you can decorate your resume to give it a pearly shine. You can add many exhibitions, talks, events, certificates, internships, jobs, skills, presentations, write-ups, projects & experiences into your resume. You are a student; it doesn’t make a bad impression when you start a work then quit it after 2 months or so. It doesn’t matter, you can always have your exams excuse. In the meantime you get experience of working differently in different environments. But after passing out; an excuse of the sort conveys a non-professional & lame attitude from your side.

Use the name entrepreneur with your name only when your core speaks that you are an entrepreneur

A little money is the reward
You do not have to worry about how the kitchen runs, how the bills are paid, or who is at the door when the bell rings. You can stay put and work towards your idea. If by chance you are able to earn through your project, then bingo you have made it this far! Consider it a milestone then work harder to achieve higher milestones. But after you pass out and if you are just making peanuts through your start-up, then people consider you nothing but nuts. 

Office space is not necessary
You do not need an office at this stage. You can always go to potential venture capitalist, client or audience and present to them your idea or project. They can also visit your project in your university and you do not need to offer them a seat at ‘your office’. They won’t get you wrong because you are a student. You can set stall in exhibitions representing your university and projecting your start-up. No one will ask that where your office is. But after you have graduated, an office space is a must when some client wants to visit to discuss about any project.

Getting approval is on the tips
When you mention that you are a student, you have got privilege already. When you pitch your idea and start marketing your skill or project, people would be interested to listen. As a student you will face fewer rejections. Getting approval of funds or stall space become easy by the virtue of being student. Clients are happy to welcome you. 

Perks identified by,

3 Stargazing Events in November 2016

The nature encompasses spectacular configurations that are most wisely brought into existence for us humans to ponder upon. This chanting universe is decorated with its own aesthetics, glories, and mysteries. We as the dwellers of this universe are blessed to see some of the marvels of the universe. There happen to be such phenomena around the universe that are directly influencing our short-span & short height life as compared to the age & vastness of the universe. The universe is the reason for us to find our path and set our goals.

2016 witnesses some of the exceptional & shinning miracles of the universe:

Dazzling Venus on the night sky – November 2016
The planet Venus has been visible whole October, 2016. November, 2016 is also a bystander of Venus. The Venus is brightly visible on southwest sky half-hour past sunset. It is clearly visible without any binoculars or any other stargazing stuff.  Watch it setting down in front of your eyes at about 7 pm - Pakistan Standard Time, then it gradually moves down and disappears. 

Meteor Showers - November 2016
Few midnights of November 2016, i.e. Nov. 12, Nov. 17, & Nov. 28 will be spectators of astounding meteor showers. Most of us won’t be able to see these showers due to their nocturnal appearances or due to other reasons. But does it matter to those showers? Do the meteor storms that these showers release stop? No! Whether we see them or not, showers are going to happen at the time they are meant to happen. We can stay stuck with our little problems so little as compared to the reason behind the showers. We can just witness even if we do witness. But Who knows the reason behind these showers? How and why these showers occur? That is for us to understand with such limited knowledge of ours & with such limited control of ours.

Super moon - November 2016
In November, three super moons are wisely planned i.e on Oct 16, Nov 14, & Dec 14. On November 14, 2016 the sky will be brightened with a big, bright, & beautiful super moon proclaiming the purity & submitting to the Creator. This super moon will be extra-super as it will be closest to the earth during 21st century till date. The moon will be this much close to earth again on Nov. 25, 2034. Just wow!  

Are all the above less to ponder upon? What else are we waiting for?
How the universe signals us to ponder?
These boundless miracles of the universe were there before we were able to know these and even before we were able to know ourselves. Have we known ourselves yet? Can we encompass each tiny or huge event that occurs in this universe? Do we think that such amazing wonders are just there for us to enjoy watching them? Yes! We do enjoy but there is much more beyond witnessing these natural enchantments of the universe. There are more extraordinary miracles to come & so much more for us to witness! 
These natural events let us to ponder, to set of our directions, to re-define our goals, and to rethink the purpose of our lives.     

Non-tech Stargazer,

Thursday 3 November 2016

6 Steps to Shed Stubborn Fat Permanently

Train your brain
Everything initiates in the brain. Unless you think it, you can’t do it. Say to yourself that yes you are going to make it! The brain empowers you to put forth an idea or action. Any time when you wish to go against your enthusiasm of losing fat, the brain signals that hey what are you doing? Listen to that signal and stop doing wrong immediately. The signals fade with time if you ignore.

Train yourself to listen to the right calling at the right time to control over your emotions.  

Start at your kitchen
Your eating habits determine whether you will lose fat or not. If your kitchen if stuffed with fat, crap, carbs, soda, & sweets, then how you would ever make it? Replace these with veggies, greens, nuts, fruits, fluids, fiber and some dairy. When your brain is trained and you have healthy stuff in your kitchen then you can timely cure your junk cravings.  
Dining out less is a perfect tip for a healthy fat loss.  


Improve your metabolism
Once your brain is functioning for your goals and you are doing well with your body by not putting crap into it, your metabolism improves naturally. If you will exercise a lot or eat too less or if you have constant cravings due to unhealthy dieting, you will probably shed some weight but that weight might be water or muscle instead of your fat that you want to lose actually. Don’t ruin your metabolism by these irrational techniques.  
Control your mind to fix your metabolism for a permanent fat loss.

Sleep & relaxation
Those days are long gone when everyone was not fluttering with that stubborn technology in the palm of their hands. This very technology that is so dear to us is ruining our lifestyles, our brains, our relations, our positive attitude, our bodies, our sleep, and soundness of minds. Yes, the technology has its own benefits indeed, but side effects are more when we use it mindlessly. Do not use technology an hour before sleep; it will help you reduce stress while improving your body conditions. 
When you are sleeping your brain detoxifies itself for a fresher you tomorrow.

Targeted exercise
Eat right and do some exercise. Exercise must be included into your busy routine. After a warm up, do sprint exercises and do such exercises that target particularly to those areas that have stubborn fats. Do not think that you don’t have time to exercise. That pet technology in your palm eats up your hours and productivity senses. Do you have a touch pad?
Replace your 15 minutes of touch pad with 15 minutes of exercise.  

Have perseverance
Stubborn fat is really & technically stubborn. No matter what you try you seem to fail. You have to try and keep trying, do not give up. No goal or no target can ever be achieved without perseverance. Stay committed to your goals with patience. Once you have achieved your goal, it is good to know that it’s only the beginning.
Stay committed to yourself along with constant struggle. 

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Saturday 15 October 2016

4 Important Points to Consider When You Want to Write a Research Paper

You have done a good research during your studies or your students have written a good thesis or done a great project. In any of the cases you have data; the data that needs to get public and needs to get published. If that data is cased in a thesis book or filed or spread on excel sheets then what’s the use of that hectic work? No one is getting benefit from it. You must try your best to make that data published in peer reviewed international journal. Writing a research paper will make you think out of the box, will generate innovative ideas in your mind, will improve your resume, will give you a sense of accomplishment, and will be of benefit to others. You need to consider the following points before you start writing:

1. Value your work, value your data
When you have a good data with facts & figures, chances are you can write a top class research paper.  Why you want to keep the data and not prove it to the world? May be someone can get benefit from it. May be you; yourself can get benefit from it, once it is published. Yeah I know there is a fear factor of what if … this factor comes when you are not too sure about your data. If you have done hard work collecting the data or extracting the data then you are pretty much on the safe side. You just need to arrange the data properly with clear headings then add proper graphs or charts etc. or whatever echoes with your data. You are done with your data.

2. Adopted a seamless methodology?
While doing research or collecting data, you must have adopted certain methodology. The big question which is generally asked is that why you chose that methodology? You must be clear on that. Your methodology should be in line with the aims & objectives of the research or project. Methodology adopted has to deliver a workable & handsome amount of data. Clearly explain the methodology with all the equipment / software etc. Do not miss out obvious points in the methodology that you think people might know. You are writing for professionals and for layman, so you have to explain everything.   

3. Here comes the writing phobia
Introduction, literature review, results, discussion, conclusion ... hmm...
Even if you have followed a perfect methodology then got a practical data, if you do not write attractively around these, your work is better to be shelved. The rigorous writing parts prove that you have done hard work and testify your work. Obviously you have already done literature review that’s how you were able to do all that research. You must have introduced yourself with the project as well before you started. But to explain it in a research paper needs aesthetic & explanatory senses both. If you write shortly that does not do it. Beautify your paper with proper introduction and literature review that goes along with your methodology. Results should be shown in a way that reflects the exertion you have put into your research. Discuss your results explaining what you have extracted and understood from the project. It is your project who can understand it better than you? Conclude your paper in a way that sums up & shows all the work.       

4. Overcome your writing phobia 
If you want to have your research published in a high impact factor peer reviewed international journal but you have no writing experience, start with blog writing. Blogs are short, provide you experience of writing & compiling your work, give you a sense of achievement, and offer you a kick start. You can review your work yourself and improve it. A blog is far more comprehensible than a work closed in thesis or file. Your work in front of you online is a mirror of efforts put, plus it provides chances for you to take a leap and gather the courage to compile your first journal paper.

For more information on blog writing & expert advice on journal publication see our about & contact pages:

Or contact the writer of this blog through her profile.

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Saturday 8 October 2016

6 Benefits of Freelancing and Entrepreneurship to Society

Freelancing is not the Aladdin's Lamp of magic. If you have started planning for future like Sheikh Chilli and dreaming about your life as a billionaire, so please come out of it before the egg basket collapse and you have left with nothing. "An apple a day, Keeps the doctor away" but eating dozen of it a day will make you calling a doctor at immediate. Freelancing may have some demerits, if one cannot balance it with physical and social activities. Freelancing is just like many other professions, you will be rewarded for what you have worked. There are many benefits of freelancing other than earning, not only for individuals but to the society.

1. Constructive Activity, Need of the Time

We are working on the "Sustainable" use of materials so that we can save it for our future generations. We are introducing solar and bio energy to save our planet from excess of Carbon-dioxide and poisonous gases. But we are not thinking to save our future generation from the increasing evil and immoral material that is spread all over the electronic and social media. Its really high time to think over it.

Let's have some examples. I think many of you are aware of that scheme run by government in which village students are paid stipends to come to school. You are also aware with the fact that we are a nuclear power. Why? Because we can't defense our country with swords at this age. Basically, I want to explain why we need freelancing or such constructive activities. That money is just a sort of stipend. You can't fight with those negativity by handing a book on "Demerits of Mobile and Internet" to the kids, nor you can banned the use of technology to them. But evolution of such applications, competitions and website can bring the youth towards positive use of technologies. 

2. Physically Deficient People are also Human

Couple of months back, many of social sites user, including you and me, have changed our display pictures by a Great Humanitarian of Century "Abdul Sattar Edhi", posted his quotations and work. All of us got inspired by the Florence Nightingale after reading about her in our text books. Now we are waiting for another "Edhi" or " Nightingale" to come and help the poor, needy and physically deficient people. Because we can only look down upon them. One more rising issue that is under discussion is Gay's rights. They are also human-being. Its we the, so called educated one, who have made them knocking each door, introducing themselves as "Baji,, Reema!!" and Begging street by street. There are many special person around us that are educated but got deficiency either by born or by some accident. They can earn their education through private or online universities or courses. University of Karachi offers a specialization or master degree course of "Special Education" to train the student to teach those special children and adults. Unfortunately, we the fast running society, moving through signal free corridors, won't consider them eligible to work with us.

Freelancing is a Platform where they can work and make their livings without been mocked.

3. War against Crime

Do you ever witnessed some mobile snatching? Whats make them snatch it from you? Its poverty, discrimination and lawlessness. If a person from lower middle class managed to get higher education and then rejected in interview because of not dressed up to the standards of that Multinational or that government officer has reserved that seat for his nephew who was not on merit; he will ultimately become a criminal. We are the society, who don't need any law and force agency, and can punish or even kill to dead to the thief that has robbed few thousands. While the spectators are busy making video of that dying one, laughing and sharing it to media. Yes, a thief deserves a punishment. but not a killing. In majority of criminal activities, we found out someone very young of age between 12-20.

Freelancing and Entrepreneurship can help to fight against poverty, discrimination and lawlessness. How? Read next point.

4. Online Business Network

First, lets define Entrepreneur. Entrepreneur is the one who have set up his own personal business and responsible to any loss or benefits himself. Entrepreneur may be grocer, seller, plumber, electrician, driver, baker, or whatever. By taking advantage of technology, they just extended their business. They are marketing their products or skills over the city or country or even worldwide using the same social sites. You have heard many of them. All the facebook user have read those funny advertisement of Sukoon , a group of electrician, carpenter, plumber, painter and mason. With the help of marketing and graphic team, they spread their network, enhance their earning and facilitating society by on-call delivery. Similarly, you may hire a taxi by Call Careem, or buy dress or accessories online, you can order and send 3D cakes and gifts to your loved one by messaging in inbox, you can buy or sell furniture or vehicle on OLX, or even you can find a property details on Zameen and much more. These all have become the needs of our rapid life. One who does not update himself continuously became outdated. So if you are a laymen waiting for work at some corner of street, think of some creativity, plan, work and be a part of this race.

5. Book Reading Culture

Race, race and race.. This race has made us a machine. We have forgotten the taste of some good literature, poetry and art. We used to go library in exam's preparation leaves only. Book fares only mean to get some text books that are available in cheaper rates. Books are the Best Friends, but we haven't met them for long.

Thanks to some entrepreneur who realized the need of it and connect us together again. I really enjoyed reading Peer e Kamil (SAWW) online in long winter nights under the blanket on mobile at Urdu Novels Online , now reading episodes of its sequel Aab e Hayat at Alif Kitab . I read few other good novels online. Although you cannot compare it with Book reading but still its a great effort. These are available in either E-book format or scanned pages of novel with author and publisher permission. You can read it for free or with little subscription fees. Instead of wasting your energy on frustration and anger while waiting for your turn in a queue or sitting in a lounge because of flight delay, you can enjoy marvelous piece of writings by our great writers. 

One more advantage is, in case you are posted in some other city, you don't need to carry a luggage of books and manuals, you can find and read them online. There are many books that are not easily available in pdf format, you have to purchase them online. Scribd has solve this problem. You may find there as many technical books and audios to extend your research.

6. Country's Fame and Reputation

If you are thinking that you will be famous by freelancing and entrepreneurship, then you must have started it 5 to 10 years back. You may find a tough competition today. To become famous, either you need to be extraordinary incredible or you have to explore that magic lamp. What my personal experience is, If I open one freelancing site, chose one field say Civil Engineering, next one of it branch say Structural Engineering, further narrowing down my selection to Show only Top Rated or 5 Star or freelancers with 100% job success score, still I can find hundreds of freelancers. 

The increasing trend of freelancing in Pakistan and in other subcontinent's country is bringing it next to the agriculture and textile industries. Foreign companies preferred to work with Asian's employer and now Freelancer, not only because of low rates (due to currency conversion factor) but also due to their hardworking, honesty and dedication. It is proud to see the top rated freelancers with a green flag bringing good name and reputation of their country to the world.