Monday, 14 December 2015

MULTIMEDIA CONTENT

1.    Introduction


Mr. Aazar Ahmed was watching the final match of Pakistan v/s India and suddenly the video became blurring and out of sync with the audio, even the video has stopped but the audio (Commentary) is continued well but he was still watching the match with all the concentration. Thus the involvement of viewer is unpredictable; one cannot control other’s involvement.
Audio visual material provides the rich for teaching, learning training and entertainment. The use of audio/video material has been very common because it saves a lot of time and money in many situations. Videos can provide much complex information easily. Our research study is all about to evaluate user experience and involvement of viewer in audio/visual content. It’s not easy at all because the involvement is not a thing that can be measure by any device or measurement tool and one’s involvement is not controlled by anyone. For this we have prepared the questionnaires which contain some general questions and some are specifically related to that video content that is shown to the participants. We have prepared the questionnaires very carefully because involvement of viewer cannot be measure with only general questions therefore we have prepared specific questions for each video. Questionnaires are also used to check the memory and concentration level of viewer. Questions that are specifically related to the video check the memory of viewer after watching the content.

Questionnaires only evaluate the involvement of viewer  but when it’s come to evaluate the emotional state and expressions of viewer we have carried out this experiment by ourselves and note down the face expressions and body language of viewer  because the viewer will not have self-report his/her  emotional state.

We are going to prove the following predictions true with our research
·        • Involvement is highly influenced by Time Duration of video.
·        • Involvement is highly influenced by the language used in the content.
·        • Involvement is highly influenced by the interest level of viewer.

2.    Method

Our research is all about to find out the user experience and involvement of viewer in the content they are watching, and for this we used post-experiment evaluation means first we provide the content to viewers and then ask questions about the content.

First step of our research was that we first split the content of videos according to the viewer’s interest and made following fragments:




Now we have 20 males, 20 females, 20 children and 20 students as participants, then we further split above fragments for comparison



Then we provide videos, as 10 out of 20 males watch short duration video and the remaining 10 watch long duration video the same approach is used for all groups (Students, Children, and Females). Each viewer has asked to fill questionnaire after watching the video content. The emotional state and expressions have been noted down by ourselves since we did this as a lab-experiment and have used our own systems, laptops and mobile phones for this purpose.

2.1          Lecture video testing:


Video can effectively communicate complex information to student can be powerful expressive tool if used creatively. Therefore we divided the lecture video into two types; boring and interesting.
We have provided the videos to 20 under graduate computer science students who have some knowledge about latest technologies in which 10 out of 20 were being provided by first type of lecture i.e. typical lecture having slides and the remaining 10 were being provided by the second type of lecture i.e. interesting lecture having music and animation. At the end we compare the results of both videos.

2.1.1    Discussion and interview


During the discussion we asked some questions verbally to viewers and we came to know that the language can understand by student if he/she listen two three times and he/she can tolerate the long duration if he/she find something match to his/her interest level but if the lecture is boring student would not prefer to watch it.

Comments of viewers:
         •  It’s informative but not interesting therefore it could not seek my attention.
        • Music and animation in the video  did not make me bored
        • The accent of lecturer is not clear only slides text in understood

2.1.2    Result

Results on the basis of questionnaire, we compare the results of both types of lecture video




2.2.       Cartoon movies testing:


Videos and animation brought great effects on children not just for entertainment but also increased their knowledge as well. Basically our goal is to evaluate the user experience and to find out how much children involve in animated videos.
For this purpose we conduct a survey of primary school where we provide two types of cartoon movies i.e. English movie and Urdu movie to children of third and fourth standard. We first provide English movie to 10 students and then Urdu movie to 10 students turn by turn and get the responses on questionnaire. We also note down the emotional state and expressions of students.
The emotional state of all children changes as they all were so excited and they don’t know what’s going to happen next they were just enjoying the movie.

2.2.1    Discussion and interview


After watching videos we asked some questions verbally to students. Some students told us that they enjoyed watching video but could not answer the questions because they cannot get all the words used in English movie.

Comments of viewers:
·        Some children said that this was his/her favorite cartoon character
·        • Cannot answer the entire question because I cannot get all the sentences said by the character in English.

2.2.2    Result


Results on the basis of questionnaire, we compare the results of both types of animated videos



2.3   Training Videos testing:


Home training and cooking recipe videos has been used by women mostly. To target our group i.e. females we chose cooking recipe videos for testing.
For this purpose we provide two types of cooking recipe videos one in English language and other was in Urdu because we have to compare the results that which type of video is more understandable for women. We target mostly all the mothers and housewives who spend most of their time in cooking and are willing to learn more from videos. We provide Urdu video to 10 women and English video to remaining 10 as we mentioned before that we have total 20 females.

2.3.1    Discussion:


During testing most of the women interrupt in the middle that all the words spoken by trainer are not understandable in English videos. After that they told that they did not get all the ingredients written in English.

2.3.2    Result

Results on the basis of questionnaire, we compare the results of both types of cooking training videos



2.4    Sports-Related videos testing:


Sports-Related videos Seeks highest degree of attention of the people who are fond of sports (cricket, football, tennis). Even most of the males just forgot what’s happening in their surrounding while watching any video related to their favorite sport.

Now at last we reached to our final target group of users i.e. males. We provided two types of videos to 20 men in which 10 out 20 watch a short duration video which is about only (1:10) 1 minute 10 seconds and remaining 10 men watch a long duration video which is about 20 minutes. We did this because we were going to find the user experience that how the duration of video effects on user experience and involvement.
We have noted many different emotional states while evaluating the viewer’s expression i.e.
·         Serious
·         Happy
·         Excited
·         Angry
·         Laughing

2.4.1    Discussion and interview:


When we asked some questions verbally to viewers after watching video we came to know the viewers of short duration video enjoyed it more because there were only some highlights of the match.
On the other hand the viewers of long duration also enjoy watching this video but they got confuse when they were answering the questions asked in questionnaire because they could not remember all the content because the duration of video was too long.

2.4.2       Result

From the results of questionnaire we compare the results of both types of Sports videos



3.      Questionnaire:


3.1          General Questions

These are some general questions we have included in our questionnaires
                                                Questions
        Answers
1.       I have seen this video before

2.       It seeks all my attention

3.       I get frustrated after watching video

4.       Video is completely useless

5.       This video make me bored

6.       Lecture increased my knowledge


7.       This video taught me new ideas


8.       The accent of lecturer is not understandable


9.       This video is full of entertainment


10.   I was continuously laughing

11.   I loved all the cartoon characters


12.   I’ll love to see this again


13.   I fully enjoyed this

14.   I enjoyed the music in the video

15.   Cricket match attract you

16.   The time duration of this video is limited

17.   This video is more informative

18.   Will you enjoy match?

19.   I will try this cooking video at home

20.   Cooking ingredients are clear to you

21.   I just forget what's happening in my surroundings while watching this video

22.   Do you like the Animations used in the video


We also include some specific questions to evaluate user experience and involvement with the content.

3.2          Specific Questions


For example:
We asked some of the abbreviations used in lecture videos to find out what viewer learn from videos and he/she got everything he watched
We asked to viewers that who hits maximum sixes in sports videos to measure that how much he concentrated on video
We asked to the viewers of cooking training videos that which ingredient was used in what amount by trainer in the video.

4.      Conclusion


With regard to the previously stated hypotheses, we evaluate the results on the basis of questionnaires, as well verbal interviews directly to the viewers and made the final evaluation in the form of graph

The following graph shows how the duration of content effects on viewer and his/her experience.


The following graph shows how the language of content effects on viewer and his/her experience.


These graphs completely elaborate our whole study. By this research we evaluate the user experience like what were the perceptions of viewer related to the content, what were the emotional changes happens when they watching any content, and how much they connect with content of their own interest.

5.      References:


1.      Van den Ende, Nele, Jettie Hoonhout, and Lydia Meesters. "Measuring involvement with audio/video content." Proceedings of the 24th BCS Interaction Specialist Group Conference. British Computer Society, 2010.

2.      Matthes, Jörg, Anke Wonneberger, and Desirée Schmuck. "Consumers' green involvement and the persuasive effects of emotional versus functional ads." Journal of Business Research 67.9 (2014): 1885-1893.

3.      Spielmann, Nathalie. "How funny was that? Uncovering humor mechanisms." European Journal of Marketing 48.9/10 (2014): 1892-1910.

4.      Choi, Yung Kyun, Sung mi Lee, and Hairong Li. "Audio and Visual Distractions and Implicit Brand Memory: A Study of Video Game Players." Journal of Advertising 42.2-3 (2013): 219-227.


5.      Leadbeater, Wendy, et al. "Evaluating the use and impact of lecture recording in undergraduates: Evidence for distinct approaches by different groups of students." Computers & Education 61 (2013): 185-192.

6.      Szpunar, Karl K., Novall Y. Khan, and Daniel L. Schacter. "Interpolated memory tests reduce mind wandering and improve learning of online lectures." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110.16 (2013): 6313-6317.

7.      Koller, Daphne, and Andrew Ng. "The Online Revolution: Learning without Limits." Presentation at Sloan-C 20th International Conference for Online Learning. 2013.


8.      Haase, Jeffrey. "MULTI-SENSORY REPRESENTATION HOW SOUND AND MOVING IMAGES ENHANCE USER EXPERIENCES AND EMOTION IN INTERIOR DESIGN." (2013).

9.      Gurvitch, Rachel, and Jackie Lund. "Animated Video Clips: Learning in the Current Generation." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 85.5 (2014): 8-17.


10.  Kennedy, Andrew J. The effect of color on emotions in animated films. Diss. PURDUE UNIVERSITY, 2014.

11.  Alqahtani, Hanadi Hussein, and Naomi A. Schoenfeld. "Teaching Cooking Skills to Young Women with Mild Intellectual Disability: The Effectiveness of Internet Websites." Current Issues in Education 17.2 (2014).

12.  Condrasky, Margaret D., et al. "Cooks training for Faith, Activity, and Nutrition project with AME churches in SC." Evaluation and program planning 37 (2013): 43-49.

13.  Nasco, Suzanne Altobello, and Gordon C. Bruner. "Perceptions and recall of advertising content presented on mobile handled devices." Journal of Interactive Advertising 7.2 (2007): 51-62.

14.  Liu, Su-Houn, Hsiu-Li Liao, and Jean A. Pratt. "Impact of media richness and flow on e-learning technology acceptance." Computers & Education 52.3 (2009): 599-607.

15.  Zaichkowsky, Judith L. "Conceptualizing involvement." Journal of advertising 15.2 (1986): 4-34.


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