Wednesday 24 August 2016

Harvard Style Writing Guideline


1. Initials should be used without spaces or full points.

2. Up to six authors may be listed. If more then list the first three authors and
represent the rest by „et al.‟ rather than write them out in full.

Text citations

All references in the text and notes must be specified by the authors‟ last names and
date of publication together with page numbers if given.

Do not use ibid., op. cit., infra., supra. Instead, show the subsequent citation of the
same source in the same way as the first.

Note the following for the style of text citations:

1. If the author‟s name is in the text, follow with year in parentheses:
... Jones (2003) has argued ...

2. If author‟s name is not in the text, insert last name, comma and year:
... a recent study (Smith, 2009) has described ...

3. Where appropriate, the page number(s) follow the year, separated by a colon:
... it has been noted (Jones, 2003: 36–42) that ...

4. Where there are two authors, give both names, joined by „and‟; if three or more
authors, use et al.:

... it has been stated (Jones and Smith, 2004) ...

... some investigators (Brown et al., 2005) ...

5. If there is more than one reference to the same author and year, insert a, b, etc. in
both the text and the list:

... it was described (Jones, 2007b: 103–22) ...

… a series of studies (Smith et al., 2008a, 2008b) produced …

6.Enclose within a single pair of parentheses a series of references, separated by

... and it has been noted (Jones and Brown, 1998; Price et al., 1999; Smith, 2003) ...

Please order alphabetically by author surnames.

7. If two or more references by the same author are cited together, separate the dates
with a comma:

... the author has stated this in several studies (Smith, 2005, 2009) ...

Please start with the oldest publication.

8. Enclose within the parentheses any brief phrase associated with the reference:

... several investigators have claimed this (but see Thompson, 2001: 21–34)

9. For an institutional authorship:

... a recent statement (Department of Education, 2008: 7) ...

... occupational data (ABS, 2004: 16–18) reveal ...

10. For authorless articles or studies, use the name of the magazine, journal,
newspaper or sponsoring organization, and not the title of the article:

... it was reported (The New York Times, 1998) that ...

11. Citations from personal communications are not included in the reference list:
... has been hypothesized (David Smith, 2008, personal communication).

Reference styles


Author A and Author B (year) Book Title. Place: Publisher name.

Crouch C, Le Gales P and Trigilia C (2001) Local Production Systems in Europe:

Rise or Demise? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Denzin NK (1989) The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological
Methods, 3rd edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Hollingsworth JR and Boyer R (eds) (1997) Contemporary Capitalism: The
Embeddedness of Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chapter in a book:

Author A (year) Chapter title: Subtitle. In: Editor A (ed.) Book Title. Place: Publisher,

Author A, Author B and Author C (year) Chapter title: Subtitle. In: Editor A and
Editor B (eds) Book Title. Place: Publisher, 00–00.

Author A and Author B (year) Chapter title: Subtitle. In: Editor A, Editor B and
Editor C (eds) Book Title. Place: Publisher, 00–00.

Gumley V (1988) Skin cancers. In: Tschudin V and Brown EB (eds) Nursing the
Patient with Cancer. London: Hall House, 26–52.

Binns T, Bek D and Ellison B (2007) Sidestepping the mainstream: Fairtrade rooibos
tea production in Wupperthal, South Africa. In: Maye D, Holloway L and Kneafsey
M (eds) Alternative Food Geographies: Representation and Practice. Oxford:
Elsevier, 331–349.

Article in a journal:

Author A and Author B (year) Article title: Subtitle. Journal vol(issue): 00–00.

Author A, Author B and Author C (year) Article title: Subtitle. Journal vol(issue):

Author A, Author B, Author C et al. (year) Article title: Subtitle. Journal vol(issue):

Winter M (2003) Embeddedness: The new food economy and defensive localism.
Journal of Rural Studies 19(1): 23–32.

Hoskins C and Mirus R (1988) Reasons of the US dominance of the international
trade in television programmes. Media, Culture and Society 10(4): 499–515.

Brossard D, Shanahan J and McComas K (2004) Are issue-cycles culturally
constructed? A comparison of French and American coverage of global climate
change. Mass Communication and Society 7(3): 359–377.

Article in a journal published ahead of print:

Author A and Author B (year) Article title. Journal 00: 1–00 (accessed 00 month

Author A, Author B and Author C (year) Article title. Journal 00: 1–00 (accessed 00
month year).

Author A, Author B, Author C et al. (year) Article title. Journal 00: 1–00 (accessed
00 month year).

Bakker AB, Emmerik HV and Riet PV (2008) How job demands, resources and
burnout predict objective performance. Anxiety, Stress and Coping 00: 1–10 (accessed
6 January 2010).

Note: volume is given as “00”.


National Center for Professional Certification. (2002) Factors Affecting
Organizational Climate and Retention. Available at:

Unpublished thesis

Kramer B (2008) Employee ownership and participation effects on firm outcomes.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, City University of New York.


Clark JM (2006) Too close to call. The Independent, 21 May, p. 10.

Working paper

Freeman RB, Kleiner MM and Ostroff C (2000) The anatomy of employee
involvement and its effects on firms and workers. National Bureau of Economic
Research Working Paper 8050, Cambridge

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