Monday 6 March 2017



This write-up describe the brief concept about black box testing  and data manipulation operations .
Black box testing is attempts to find errors in the external behavior of the code like incorrect or
missing functionality, interface errors, errors in data structures used by interfaces, behavior or
performance errors. Data manipulation is the process of changing data to make it organized or
meaningful form


Black box Testing

Black box testing is the Software testing method which is used to test the software without knowing the internal structure of code or program. -. For example, in a black box test on a software design the tester only knows the inputs and what the expected outcomes should be and not how the program arrives at those outputs. The tester does not ever examine the programming code and does not need any further knowledge of the program.



·         The tester does not need knowledge of any specific programming languages.
·         Test is performed from a user’s point-of-view and not of the designer’s
·         Test cases can be designed as soon as the specifications are complete.


·         The reason for a failure is not found.
·         Testing every possible input stream is not possible because it is time-consuming and this would eventually leave many program paths untested.

·         Chances of having repetition of tests that are already done by programmer.

Purpose of Each Consistency Area

Data manipulation is the process of changing data in an effort to make it easier to read or more organized. For example, a log of data could be organized in alphabetical order, making individual entries easier to locate. Data manipulation is often used on web server logs to allow a website owner to view their most popular pages as well as their traffic sources.
A data manipulation language (DML) is a family of syntax elements similar to a computer programming language used for selecting, inserting, deleting and updating data in a database. Performing read-only queries of data is sometimes also considered a component of DML.
Data Manipulation Operations


 Retrieve data from web application and mobile application


Insert data into a database, web application and mobile application


Updates existing data within a table or new record enter in a database , web application and mobile application


 Deletes records from desktop application, web app and mobile app

Desktop App

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